بررسی تاثیر عوامل ویژه شرکتی بر عملکرد صادراتی کسب و کارهای تولیدی در ایران: با استفاده از داده های سرشماری کارگاه های صنعتی مرکز آمار ایران

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استاد یار گروه مدیریت موسسه عالی آموزش و پژوهش مدیریت و برنامه ریزی

2 استاد گروه مدیریت دانشکده مدیریت و اقتصاد دانشگاه تربیت مدرس

چکیده

پژوهش حاضر یک تحقیق کاربردی است که عوامل ویژه شرکتی تاثیرگذار بر عملکرد صادراتی کسب و کارهای تولیدی کوچک و متوسط در ایران را مورد بررسی قرار می‌دهد. جامعه آماری این تحقیق شامل 14697 کارگاه تولیدی فعال در کشور بر اساس طرح سرشماری مرکز آمار ایران از بنگاه‌های صنعتی 10 نفر کارکن و بیشتر است. در نهایت به دلیل نقص داده‌ها تعداد 1169 بنگاه‌های صنعتی صادرکننده به عنوان نمونه نهایی این پژوهش انتخاب شدند. برای تجزیه و تحلیل داده‌ها از  ضریب همبستگی پیرسون و روش رگرسیون چند متغیره سلسله مراتبی استفاده گردید. نتایج گویای این است که شرکت‌های تولیدی کوچکتر و با مالکیت خصوصی از عملکرد صادراتی بهتری برخوردار هستند. همچنین سطح تکنولوژی و شدت سرمایه در عملکرد صادراتی کسب و کارهای تولیدی کوچک و متوسط تاثیر ندارند. یافته‌های پژوهش نشانگر تاثیر مهارت کارکنان و میزان تحصیلات آنها بر عملکرد صادراتی است. تحقیق و توسعه و تنوع محصول نیز بر عملکرد صادراتی موفق این شرکت‌ها تاثیر دارند. نتایج نشان می‌دهد شرکت‌های تولیدی با تنوع محصولات کمتر از عملکرد بهتری در حوزه صادرات در ایران برخوردار هستند.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The Impact of Firm-Specific Factors on the Export Performance

نویسندگان [English]

  • mehdi Rasouli Ghahroudi 1
  • Adel Azar 2
1 Assistant Professor in International Business Management Institute for Management and Planning Studies (IMPS)
2 Faculty Member of Tarbiyat Modares University
چکیده [English]

This study is an empirical research that examines the firm-specific factors that affect the export performance of SMEs in Iran. The statistical population includes active exporter manufacturing firms based on the census of the Statistical Center of Iran. Due to missing data, 1169 manufacturing firms were selected as the final sample of this study. Pearson correlation coefficient and hierarchical multivariate regression methods were used to analyze the data. The results suggest that smaller, privately owned companies have better export performance. Also, the level of technology and capital intensity do not affect the export performance of small and medium-sized businesses. The findings of the research indicate the effect of staff skills and their degree of education on export performance. Research and development (R&D) and product diversity also have an effect on export performance. The results show that manufacturing companies with a few numbers of products have better performance in export.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Export Performance / SMEs
  • Firm-Specific Factor / R&D / Ownership
حسنقلی پور، ط. اصانلو، ب. و سلامی، ع. (1387).» شناسایی و رتبه‌بندی مشکلات و موانع صادرات خودرو در کشور». مجله دانش و توسعه، شماره 23، ص170-145.

سلطانی، الیزابت (1388). «نقش بهره‌وری در رشد اقتصادی و توسعه صادرات غیر نفتی». مجله اقتصادی-ماهنامه بررسی مسائل و سیاست‌های اقتصادی، شماره‌های 95 و 96.

سلمانی، بهزاد؛ عبدی، حسن (1393).» اثرات تحقیق و توسعه داخلی و واردات فناوری بر صادرات صنعت مواد غذایی و  آشامیدنی در ایران». فصلنامه علمی- پژوهشی مطالعات اقتصادیِ کاربردی ایران، سال سوم، شماره 10، صفحات 106-83.

عمید، امین؛ و غمخواری، معصومه (1388). «بررسی تاثیر فناوری اطلاعات بر توسعه صادرات صنایع کوچک و متوسط در ایران». چشم انداز مدیریت، شماره 32، ص ص 202-183.

محمدزاده، پرویز؛ و سجودی، سکینه (1390). «بررسی عوامل موثر بر عملکرد صادراتی شرکت‌های تولیدی ایران». پژوهشنامه مدیریت اجرایی، سال سوم، شماره 6، ص 152-127.

 

Adeoti, J. O. (2012). Technology-related factors as determinants of export potential of Nigerian manufacturing firms. Structural Change and Economic Dynamics, 23(4), 487-503.

Baldauf, A., Cravens, D. W., & Wagner, U. (2000). Examining determinants of export performance in small open economies. Journal of World Business, 35(1), 61-79.

Barberis, N., Boycko, M., Shleifer, A., & Tsukanova, N. (1995). How does privatization work? Evidence from the Russian shops (No. w5136). National Bureau of Economic Research.

Barney, J. (1991). Firm resources and sustained competitive advantage. Journal of Management, 17(1), 99-120.

Barrios, S., Görg, H., & Strobl, E. (2003). Explaining Firms’ Export Behaviour: R&D, Spillovers and the Destination Market. Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, 65(4), 475-496.

Beleska-Spasova, E. (2014). Determinants and measures of export performance–comprehensive literature review. Journal of Contemporary Economic and Business Issues, 1(1), 63-74.

Berger, P. G., & Ofek, E. (1995). Diversification’s effect on firm value. Journal of Financial Economics, 37(1), 39-65.

Bernard, A. B., & Wagner, J. (2001). Export entry and exit by German firms. Weltwirtschaftliches Archiv, 137(1), 105-123.

Bernard, A. B., Jensen, J. B., & Schott, P. K. (2003). Falling trade costs, heterogeneous firms, and industry dynamics (No. w9639). National Bureau of Economic Research.

Boso, N, Story, VM, Cadogan, JW, Annan, J, Kadić-Maglajlić, S, Micevski, M (2016) Enhancing the sales benefits of radical product innovativeness in internationalizing small and medium-sized enterprises, Journal of Business Research, 69(11), pp.5040-5045,

Cavusgil, S. T. (1984). Differences among exporting firms based on their degree of internationalization. Journal of Business Research, 12(2), 195-208.

Cerrato, D., & Piva, M. (2012). The internationalization of small and medium-sized enterprises: the effect of family management, human capital and foreign ownership. Journal of Management & Governance, 16(4), 617-644.

Chen, J. and Sousa, C. M. P. and Xinming, H. (2016) ‘The determinants of export performance: a review of the literature 2006-2014.’, International Marketing Review., 33 (5). pp. 626-670.

Chetty, S., & Campbell-Hunt, C. (2003). Paths to internationalisation among small-to medium-sized firms: a global versus regional approach. European Journal of Marketing, 37(5/6), 796-820.

Claessens, S., & Djankov, S. (1999). Ownership concentration and corporate performance in the Czech Republic. Journal of Comparative Economics, 27(3), 498-513.

Costantini, J., Melitz, M (2007). “The Organization of Firms in a Global Economy”. Harvard University Press. chapter The Dynamics of Firm-Level Adjustment to Trade Liberalization.

Dosoglu-Guner, B. (2001). Can organizational behavior explain the export intention of firms? The effects of organizational culture and ownership type. International Business Review, 10(1), 71-89.

Fernández, Z., & Nieto, M. J. (2005). Internationalization strategy of small and medium-sized family businesses: some influential factors. Family Business Review, 18(1), 77-89.

Fu, D., Wu, Y., & Tang, Y. (2010). The effects of ownership structure and industry characteristics on export performance. Business School, Economics, University of Western Australia.

Gibson, T., & Van der Vaart, H. J. (2008). Defining SMEs: A less imperfect way of defining small and medium enterprises in developing countries. Brookings Global Economy and Development.

Gimede, V. (2004). Export propensities and intensities of small and medium manufacturing enterprises in South Africa. Small Business Economics, 22(5), 379-389.

Gomes-Casseres, B. (1989). Ownership structures of foreign subsidiaries: Theory and evidence. Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, 11(1), 1-25.

Guner, B., Lee, J., and Lucius, H. (2010). The impact of industry characteristics on export performance: a three country study. International Journal of Business and Economics Perspectives, 5(2), 126-141.

Gupta, N. (2005). Partial privatization and firm performance. The Journal of Finance, 60(2), 987-1015.

Hagemejer, J. (2007). Factors driving the firm’s decision to export. Firm-level evidence from Poland.

Harris, R., & Li, Q. C. (2009). Exporting, R&D, and absorptive capacity in UK establishments. Oxford Economic Papers, 61(1), 74-103.

Hooi, L. W. (2006). Implementing e-HRM: The readiness of small and medium sized manufacturing companies in Malaysia. Asia Pacific Business Review, 12(4), 465-485.

Ibeh, K. I., & Wheeler, C. N. (2005). A resource-centred interpretation of export performance. The International Entrepreneurship and Management Journal, 1(4), 539-556.

Jacquemin, A. P., & Berry, C. H. (1979). Entropy measure of diversification and corporate growth. The Journal of Industrial Economics, 359-369.

Jose, M. L., Nichols, L. M., & Stevens, J. L. (1986). Contributions of diversification, promotion, and R&D to the value of multiproduct firms: A Tobin’s q approach. Financial Management, 33-42.

Kirbach, M., & Schmiedeberg, C. (2008). Innovation and export performance: adjustment and remaining differences in East and West German manufacturing. Econ. Innov. New Techn., 17(5), 435-457.

Kumar, N., & Siddharthan, N. S. (1994). Technology, firm size and export behaviour in developing C Ountries: the case of Indian enterprises. The Journal of Development Studies, 31(2), 289-309.

Lal, K. (2002). E-business and manufacturing sector: a study of small and medium-sized enterprises in India. Research Policy, 31(7), 1199-1211.

Lefebvre, E., & Lefebvre, L. (2001). Innovative capabilities as determinants of export behaviour and performance: A longitudinal study of manufacturing SMEs. Innovation and firm performance. Econometric exploration of survey data. London: Palgrave.

Liu, X., & Shu, C. (2003). Determinants of export performance: evidence from Chinese industries. Economics of Planning, 36(1), 45-67.

Louter, P. J., Ouwerkerk, C., & Bakker, B. A. (1991). An inquiry into successful exporting. European Journal of Marketing, 25(6), 7-23.

Marandu, E. E. (2011). Structural factors associated with the export performance of manufacturing firms. Journal of International Business and Cultural Studies, 5, 1.

Melitz, M. J. (2003). The impact of trade on intra-industry reallocations and aggregate industry productivity. Econometrica, 71(6), 1695-1725.

Nguyen, A. N., Quang Pham, N., Nguyen, C. D., & Nguyen, N. D. (2008). Innovation and exports in Vietnam’s SME sector. The European Journal of Development Research, 20(2), 262-280.

Papadogonas, T., Voulgaris, F., & Agiomirgianakis, G. (2007). Determinants of export behavior in the Greek manufacturing sector. Operational Research, 7(1), 121-135.

Parker, D., & Martin, S. (1995). The impact of UK privatisation on labour and total factor productivity. Scottish Journal of Political Economy, 42(2), 201-220.

Patterson, P. G., Cicic, M., & Shoham, A. (1997). A temporal sequence model of satisfaction and export intentions of service firms. Journal of Global Marketing, 10(4), 23-43.

Pradhan, J. P., & Das, K. (2012). Exports by Indian Manufacturing SMEs: Regional Patterns and Determinants.

Ramanujam, V., & Varadarajan, P. (2006). Research on corporate diversification: A synthesis. Strategic Management Journal, (10), 523-551.

Ramstetter, E. D. (1999). Trade propensities and foreign ownership shares in Indonesian manufacturing. Bulletin of Indonesian Economic Studies, 35(2), 43-66.

Reis, J., & Forte, R. (2014). The Impact of Industry Characteristics on Firms’ Export Intensity. Universidade do Porto, (524).

Rikardo F (2015). “Values social capital and OCB among Chinese employees”. International Journal of Intercultural Relations. Vol. 34, Issue. 5, PP: 493-506.

Schlegelmilch, B. B., & Crook, J. N. (1988). Firm-level determinants of export intensity. Managerial and Decision Economics, 9(4), 291-300.

Singer, T. O., & Czinkota, M. R. (1994). Factors associated with effective use of export assistance. Journal of International Marketing, 53-71.

Sousa, C. M. (2004). Export performance measurement: an evaluation of the empirical research in the literature. Academy of Marketing Science Review, 9(12), 1-23.

Sterlacchini, A. (2001). The determinants of export performance: A firm-level study of Italian manufacturing. Weltwirtschaftliches Archiv, 137(3), 450-472.

Stoian, M. C., Rialp, A., & Rialp, J. (2011). Export performance under the microscope: A glance through Spanish lenses. International Business Review, 20(2), 117-135.

Suárez-Ortega, S. M., & Alamo-Vera, F. R. (2005). SMES’internationalization: firms and managerial factors. International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, 11(4), 258-279.

Sun, W. Price, J. & Ding Y. (2018). The longitudinal effects of internationalization on firm performance: The moderating role of marketing capability, Journal of Business Research, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbusres.2018.08.014.

Van Dijk, M. (2002). The determinants of export performance in developing countries: The case of Indonesian manufacturing. Eindhoven Centre for Innovation Studies Working Paper, 2(01).

Vermeulen, P. (2004). Factor content, size, and export propensity at the firm level. Economics Letters, 82(2), 249-252.

Wagner, J. (1995). Exports, firm size, and firm dynamics. Small Business Economics, 7(1), 29-39.

Wakelin, K. (1998). Innovation and export behaviour at the firm level. Research @Policy, 26(7), 829-841.

Wang, F. (2014). Complementarities between R&D investment and exporting—Evidence from China. China Economic Review, 31, 217-227.

Williamson, O. E. (1979). Transaction-cost economics: the governance of contractual relations. Journal of Law and Economics, 233-261.

Willmore, L. (1992). Tansnationals and foreign trade: Evidence from Brazil. The Journal of Development Studies, 28(2), 314-335.

Yang, C. H., & Chen, Y. H. (2012). R&D, productivity, and exports: Plant-level evidence from Indonesia. Economic Modelling, 29(2), 208-216.

Yang, C. H., Chen, J. R., & Chuang, W. B. (2004). Technology and export decision. Small Business Economics, 22(5), 349-364.

Yasuyuki, T. (2009). Quantitative Evaluation of Determinants of Export and FDI: Firm-level Evidence from Japan (No. 09019).

Zhao, H., & Zou, S. (2002). The impact of industry concentration and firm location on export propensity and intensity: An empirical analysis of Chinese manufacturing firms. Journal of International Marketing, 10(1), 52-71.

Zou, S., & Stan, S. (1998). The determinants of export performance: a review of the empirical literature between 1987 and 1997. International Marketing Review, 15(5), 333-356.