A Comparative Analysis of “Rotterdam Rules” (2009) Innovations in Carriage of Goods by Sea in Comparison With “Hague Rules” (1924) and “Hamburg Rules” (1978)

Document Type : Research Paper


1 Private Law Department, Payame Noor University of Tehran

2 Private Law Department,


On December 11, 2008, the United Nations adopted the “Convention on Contracts for the International Carriage of Goods Wholly or Partly by Sea”, more colloquially known as the “Rotterdam Rules” for the city which hosted the convention’s signing ceremony on September 23, 2009. Definitely, one of the advantages of Rotterdam Rules in comparison with the former rules is providing new innovation with new requirements of industry and commerce. Rotterdam Rules also by adopting the “Door to Door” mode for carriage of goods, promoting the Electronic Transport Record, embedding the “Volume Contracts” and providing “Joint and Several Liability” between carriers and performing parties have opened new horizons in the carriage of goods by sea. Rotterdam Rules in spite of avoiding the excesses of “Hamburg Rules” retained its strength points and has tried to eliminate the defects of “Hague Rules”. Therefore, it can be said that this convention has caused a balanced approach among the benefits of shippers and carriers for providing the general fortuity.


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  • Receive Date: 26 September 2017
  • Revise Date: 24 December 2017
  • Accept Date: 26 December 2017
  • First Publish Date: 21 March 2019