بررسی تاثیر بندهای غیر متعارف توافقنامه های تجاری منطقه ای بر تجارت بین الملل

نویسنده

عضو هیات علمی و استادیار گروه اقتصاد دانشگاه ازاد اسلامی واحد نراق

چکیده

حوزه‌ی توافقنامه‌های تجاری منطقه‌ای RTA اخیر با وارد کردن چندین بند از‌جمله سیاست رقابت یا دارایی‌های فکری و فراتر رفتن از مرز تعهدات  WTO، گسترده‌تر از پیش شده است. این RTA‌های گسترش‌یافته نه فقط نرخ‌های تعرفه را کاهش می‌دهند بلکه باعث ایجاد همکاری و ارتباط در حوزه‌های متعدد اقتصادی در میان کشورهای عضو می‌گردد. اگر وجود هر بند دارای تاثیرات قابل توجه و متفاوتی از لحاظ تجارت‌آفرینی داشته باشد، حتی اگر از لحاظ میزان کاهش تعرفه‌ها دارای ارزش برابر باشند، این تفاوت‌ها در حوزه‌ی RTA‌‌ها می‌تواند منجر به تاثیرات ناهمگنی روی معاملات میان RTA‌ها شود لذا این تحقیق سعی دارد میزان تاثیر افزایشی هر بند از RTA  بر ارزش معامله را در کشورهای عضو RTA مورد بررسی قرار دهد. برای انجام آن 96 RTA منعقد شده میان 67 کشور عضو منطقه‌ی ESCPI، در یک دوره زمانی 40 ساله مورد بررسی قرار گرفت و با استفاده از تکنیک PPML به همراه اندیکاتورهایی که به خوبی برای هر RTA منعقد شده، تفکیک شده‌اند، یک معادله جاذبه تخمین زده شد . نتایج ناشی از تحلیل‌ها نشاد داد که : الف) بند سیاست رقابتی به‌طور مداوم دارای تاثیرات مثبتی بر معاملات می‌باشد و بیش‌ترین تاثیر را بر گسترش معاملات دارد و سپس بند تدارکات دولتی در رتبه‌ی دوم تاثیرگذاری قرار می‌گیرد ب) همچنین تجزیه و تحلیل افزایش معاملات در حاشیه‌های درونی و بیرونی نشان از نقش‌های قابل توجه بندهای مربوط به سیاست رقابتی و تدارکات دولتی دارد ج) تمام نتایج نسبت به مشخصات و نمونه‌های مختلف، قدرتمند و معتبر هستند و نشان می‌دهند حضور بندهای سیاست‌ رقابتی و تدارکات دولتی به‌منظور افزایش تاثیرات تجارت‌آفرینی RTA‌ها در جهت گسترش حمایت سیاسی برای انعقاد RTA‌ها بسیار حائز اهمیت است .

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Investigating the Impact of Nonconventional Provisions in Regional Trade Agreements on International Trade

نویسنده [English]

  • Mostafa Heidari Haratemeh
Member of the faculty and assistant professor of economics at the Islamic Azad University of Naragh Branch
چکیده [English]

The scope of recent regional trade agreements (RTAs) is significantly broadened by introducing several clauses, including competition policy or intellectual property rights, and expanding beyond WTO obligations.  These expanded RTAs not only reduce tariff rates, but also create cooperation and communication across a wide range of economic areas among member countries. If the existence of each clause has a significant and different effect on the level of entrepreneurship, even if it is equal in terms of tariff reduction, these differences in RTA can lead to heterogeneous effects on transactions between RTAs. Therefore, this research tries to examine the incremental impact of each RTA on transaction value in RTA countries.  To do this, 96 RTAs were assessed among 67 ESCAP member countries in a period of 40 years , and they were estimated using PPML technique along with indicators that were appropriate for each RTA, gravity equation. The results show that: a) the clause of a competitive policy has a continuous effect on trading and has the greatest impact on the expansion of transactions followed by the government procurement clause; b) also the analysis of the increase of transactions in the internal and external boundaries show significant roles in terms of competition policy and government procurement. c ) All results are strong and valid with respect to the various specimens, and show that the presence of competitive policy and government procurement are important in increasing the RTA's impact

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Gravity Equation / RTA / Government Procurement / Intellectual Property / Competition Policy / Dispute Settlement
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