رابطه متقابل نوآوری و صادرات در بنگاه‌های کوچک و متوسط: کاربرد تحلیل تناظر چندگانه و مدل معادلات ساختاری تعمیم یافته

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشیار گروه اقتصاد، دانشکده اقتصاد و مدیریت، دانشگاه ارومیه، ارومیه، تهران

2 پژوهشگر مرکز تحقیق اقتصاد و مدیریت دانشگاه کان‌نرماندی، فرانسه

3 دانشجوی دکترای اقتصاد،‌دانشکده اقتصاد و مدیریت، دانشگاه ارومیه، ارومیه، ایران

چکیده

هدف اصلی این تحقیق بررسی رابطه متقابل نوآوری و صادرات در بنگاه‌های کوچک و متوسط است. جامعة آماری این پژوهش، بنگاه‌های کوچک و متوسط استان آذربایجان غربی است. تحلیل‌های این پژوهش بر مبنای پرسشنامه برگرفته از پروژه IDEIS تحت عنوان فرایند نوآوری در بنگاه‌های کوچک و متوسط فرانسوی است که با لحاظ تغییراتی در پرسشنامه مذکور و بومی‌سازی آن متناسب با شرایط ایران و لحاظ موانع صادراتی موجود در ایران نهایی شده و از شهریور ماه 1395 تا پایان فروردین ماه 1396 با مراجعه به مدیران بنگاه‌های کوچک و متوسط استان آذربایجان غربی تکمیل شده است. به این منظور، شاخص‌های شدت ورودی نوآوری و شدت خروجی نوآوری با استفاده از روش تحلیل تناظر چندگانه  محاسبه و سپس مدل اقتصادسنجی موردنظر با استفاده از مدل معادلات ساختاری تعمیم یافته  برآورد شده است. نتایج تحقیق نشان می‌دهد اثر صادرات بر نوآوری مثبت و معنی‌دار است اما در مقابل، اثر نوآوری بر صادرات منفی می‌باشد که بیانگر کوچک بودن سطح نوآوری بنگاه‌های ایرانی است. همچنین شاخص موانع صادرات بر صادرات بنگاه‌ها اثر منفی دارد. با توجه به نتایج، اثر یادگیری از صادرات برای بنگاه‌های کوچک و متوسط مشهود بوده و در این زمینه مناسب است دولت با اقدامات حمایتی از صادرات از قبیل بازاریابی برای محصولات جدید و همچنین یافتن بازارهای جدید صادراتی و اعطای یارانه صادرات موجبات افزایش صادرات را فراهم کند.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Reciprocal Relationship between Innovation and Exports in SME’s: Application of Multiple Correspondence Analysis and Generalized Structural Equation Model

نویسندگان [English]

  • Kiumars Shahbazi 1
  • Mohammad Movahedi 2
  • Younes Brumand 3
1 Urmia University
2 Researcher at University of Caen Normandy
3 PhD Student in Economics, Urmia University
چکیده [English]

The main objective of this study was to investigate the reciprocal relationship between innovation and exports in small and medium-sized enterprises (SME’s). The statistical population of this research is the SME’s of West Azarbaijan province. The analyzes of this research are based on a questionnaire derived from the IDEIS project entitled the process of innovation in French’s small and medium-sized firms, which was changed and adopted in accordance with the conditions of Iran and the existing export barriers. The questionnaire have been completed from September 2016 to April 2017, addressing the managers of small and medium enterprises of West Azarbaijan Province. To this end, the intensity of input and output innovation were calculated using Multiple Correspondence Analysis (MCA) and then the econometric model was estimated using the Generalized Structural Equation Model (GSEM). The results show that the effect of exports on innovation is positive and significant, but on the contrary, the effect of innovation on exports is negative which indicates that the level of innovation of Iranian firms is small. Also, the barriers to exports index has a negative effect on firms' exports. According to the results, the learning effect of exports on SME’s is evident. In this regard, the government must support export-oriented measures, such as marketing for new products, as well as finding new export markets, providing export subsidies which will increase exports.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • SMEs / Innovation / Exports / MCA / GSEM

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